Create a free account to download. 4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps. Fig.3: A heat engine that violates the Kelvin‐Planck statement of the second law cannot be built. Thermodynamics is a macroscopic science. This paper. This cycle was first proposed for heating applications in 1852by Kelvin, who referred tohis device as a ’heat multiplier’ [2]. S. Dewi Kiniasih. Heat pumps are devices that operate in a cycle similar to the vapor-compression refrigerator cycle illustrated in Figure 1. As the compressor is designed specifically for heat pump uses a copper heat transfer coil is located at the base of the compressor with in the oil reservoir. This physics video tutorial explains how to calculate the coefficient of performance of refrigerators and heat pumps. THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, AND FLUID FLOW Volume 1 of 3 U.S. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D.C. 20585 Distribution Statement A. A heat pump is a mechanical system that allows for the transmission of heat from one location (the "source") at a lower temperature to another location (the "sink" or "heat sink") at a higher temperature. ��|xCM�E�=[�1��VA+�W�}� o���eu��v�1�#0`�/�[G�ЍQ�Ҵ��t���r֛-��|\��ѧ|N�F��ƿs'4X�N��w�y9�?-F)�~g����L����8f_���b������r�se�ۆ7�Rڶ�X�%�njkc�r8�8��2����o�Ɨ7�N�e� ���{�mw�tž���O�}��:%��cj%���:�z9IKq����=ΰ;R��~'�z��NāC�1��R�,�m-� 0000080996 00000 n YdA�q�:���&c \���W +���~�ܢ�EF!�ܨM�h\�NW�ͷ�����CChV\{U�O�8-��=w4�m� 0), or as an heat pump (W2 + W4 > 0), proves that work and heat cannot be exact differentials, viz that δQ = 0 . • Define a reversed heat engine. A COP value of four would mean an energy saving of 75%. Thermodynamics 12.4 Heat, internal energy and work 12.5 First law of thermodynamics 12.6 Specific heat capacity 12.7 Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state 12.8 Thermodynamic processes 12. 138 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 140 /H [ 1128 1036 ] /L 1345845 /E 163328 /N 34 /T 1342966 >> endobj xref 138 34 0000000016 00000 n The thermodynamic cycle. The first of these represents the conversion of work into heat. 0000001031 00000 n The net force (F F) required to balance the friction force is F 1-F 2 These forces are the result of the action of pressures p 1 and p 2 (see Figure 2-6). Refrigerator is to maintain the refrigerated space at a low temperature. In classical thermodynamics, e.g., before about 1900, entropy, S, was given by the equation ∆S = ∆Q/T where ∆S is the entropy change in a system, ∆Q is heat energy added to or taken from the system, and T is the temperature of the system. Thermodynamics latest .docx. You only pay for W, and you get an additional heat transfer of Qcfrom the outside at no cost; in many cases, at least twice as much energy is transferred to the heated space as is used to run the heat pump… Thermodynamics 22.2 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 22.3 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 22.4 The Carnot Engine 22.5 Gasoline and Diesel Engines 22.6 Entropy 22.7 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes Scale 22.8 Entropy on a Microscopic Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q22.1 First, the efficiency of the automobile engine … An artifact of the second law of thermodynamics is the ability to heat an interior space using a heat pump. 33 Full PDFs related to this paper. h�b```c``z����0��A��X��,��^�4E�KÞ�Pi�D�wpL�n'8喌fnI�CyGGG3�d���@ ����7�f`���2T���P��d�������T���y�>��1�4x000^Z�.���A&��C��C���P�H2p>]��޹ ���: �����H31�����88!� O,:� Download PDF Package. Exp 8 Refrigerant Heat Pump. Heat pumps move thermal energy in the opposite direction of spontaneous heat transfer, by absorbing heat from a cold space and releasing it to a warmer one. Chapter 2 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics Learning Outcomes Demonstrate understanding of key concepts related to energy and the first law of thermodynamics Including internal, kinetic, and potential energy, work and power, heat transfer and heat transfer modes, heat transfer rate, power cycle, refrigeration cycle, and heat pump cycle. namely, the use of heat pumps and air conditioners, which are really just engines that use work to push air around. :I�.�������/��ᗛ%N��#Ѭ?���� In the heating mode, heat transfer Q c Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} occurs to the working fluid in the evaporator (3) from the colder outdoor air, turning it into a gas. Heat pumps operate as a heat engine in reverse, as they do work from an input of electricity to push heat from a cold place to a warm place. A heat pump uses external power to accomplish the work of transferring energy from the heat source to the heat sink. An artifact of the second law of thermodynamics is the ability to heat an interior space using a heat pump. Download Full PDF Package. Keywords— Heat Pumps, Non-renewable energy sources, Chemical Industry. Thermodynamic cycles often use quasistatic processes to model the workings of actual devices. thermodynamics - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. H�|W�n�F}�Wܷ�E=!g�E'V'��Z,���M�,&\d���|}�̐��0`q�s�s��h�&�8�-F��€,��+7d�G>��r(�Go��%����N�ћ�3��EQ��mFc:�~���f������Wn�{A�W�O-fY������ӄΦӿ/ޟE�Wt��\�+�� ��7���߮�./��(��鿗S�}�E�˙�2�Fn�8��,fsrB�yuN@�-F�tz�����e����y��r�Pr�c�ɩ�YsǓ����otvuN;����z:��.&p�{�yP4�����O��meǘ�&˴�d�Y!��uZɚ�2��MU��I��5%5KY������4�UU�dդ���9�M�Ț�UI����r��6 Power cycles are cycles which convert some heat input into a mechanical work output, while heat pump cycles transfer heat from low to high Refrigerator or Heat Pump. Thermodynamics II Chapter 5 Refrigeration Mohsin Mohd Sies Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. It absorb heat from sink at lower temperature and reject a larger amount of heat to source at higher temperature. Aerothermodynamics Thermodynamics Laboratory Report Heat Pump Performance Analysis Aerospace Engineering Year 2 Contents. PDF. 0000003961 00000 n 0000109141 00000 n • Use thermodynamic tables for common refrigerants. ME143L - Report 2 - Heat Pump. ��7Rn^��� D��54� (�-�f�K(�t ?�s00�{Ȇ`ͦ &æ��W#�>#�� C��k������*���|��-���q��>�Z��Z��X�o�o���3GXu��?ѥ�_�aW�ІN���1�ں'a�� p,t�z��sv��k/���S�o�@�f_OB��� ��S�ҹP6[�5/:�����ߗO������p�"����,r�D{�C=Q),�8�8Ӑ��* ���f��v��� ���I����\�!�c�x��l&���. 0000136299 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� Premium PDF Package. 0000001128 00000 n NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. The technology is now becoming a keystone to the energy mix for decarbonising heating and cooling in industry and society at large. For heating purposes thermal energy of soil is collected in water - antifreeze solution that is then pump to the heat exchanger (evaporator), in which it transfer heat to working medium (like HFC-134a). • Define a refrigerator and heat pump. 0000084117 00000 n �e �aJ�Ӡ,%�:�0Ť����((���� Basically, the heat pump requires energy (in this case work, W) in order to Whether travelling in a vehicle, sitting comfortably in an AC room or enjoying a cold drink from the refrigerator, you will observe the application of thermodynamics almost everywhere either directly or indirectly. 3. The Carnot cycle has been used for power, but we can also run it in reverse. A short summary of this paper. The equiva- Download Free PDF. to estimate required balances of heat, work and energy flow. INTRODUCTION Heat pump is a device which pumps heat from, one or more low temperature sources to one or more high temperature sinks simultaneously, with the help of an external source of energy. 0000002322 00000 n Background to the Second Law of Thermodynamics [IAW 23-31 (see IAW for detailed VWB&S references); VN Chapters 2, 3, 4] 1.A.1 Some Properties of Engineering Cycles; Work and Efficiency As motivation for the development of the second law, we examine two types of processes that concern interactions between heat and work. Fig. h��mO9���?�N�~_�T!R �Q���(����,J�w��ߌ�v�K�TmU�;�����xf���e%Be�QC���x��jN�P"$-�>��Ȱ�D���Ԇ��2bXJDJIm�2�� �rX'b��$\P�*�S� �)ʤD2�=�U0P�fD)�6j�b�m2�c81Ta��(FB��1ؕ���(�BC���l�ի���IN���������M��0�zv[M��4/�����w�%��q5�a�NWBg�!��p�@���N������"��L�j�w��LJ"9? 12.10 Refrigerators and heat pumps 12.11 Second law of thermodynamics 12.12 Reversible and irreversible processes 12.1 3 Carnot engine Summary Points to ponder Exercises 304 PHYSICS Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the concepts of heat and temperature and the inter -conversion of heat and other for ms of energy. The reverse process, however, cannot occur by itself. This paper. Heat pumps and air conditioners are rated using the SEER system. 0000081360 00000 n This process is known as space conditioning. Thermodynamics Lab Manual . Download with Google Download with Facebook. (Randy could not give me a reference to the source of this amazing observation). h�bbd```b``������-�q�6��% ��Lʀ��`�m`��m"�2����!`�A$w�d����jĀ$��p6� ��4H�uФ!F�g`�� � ��� The energy transition is therefore not a technology challenge but rather a policy and awareness-raising issue. The SEER rating is the amount of heating (cooling) on a seasonal basis in Btu/hr per unit rate of power expended in watts, W. The heat transfer rate is often given in terms of tons of heating or cooling. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 0000004002 00000 n A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a thermal reservoir. 1.A. " L8'X�Ƀ4 Figure 15.28 A simple heat pump has four basic components: (1) condenser, (2) expansion valve, (3) evaporator, and (4) compressor. 0000006032 00000 n 0000007625 00000 n Heat pumps compress cold ambient air and, in so doing, heat it to room temperature without violation of conservation principles. I. A short summary of this paper. To calculate the heat pump’s coefficient of performance, use the equation [latex]{\text{COP}}_{\text{hp}}=\frac{{Q}_{\text{h}}}{W}\\[/latex] . �. Relying on the same thermodynamic principles as the Solar Assisted Heat Pump range, the Big Magic Thermodynamic Box transfers this energy to water within its casing, to efficiently and cost effectively handle the water heating for use in your home. Heat pump technology can deliver major economic, environmental and energy system benefits to Europe. Thermodynamic principle of the heat pump is described by Carnot circular process [2]. or. 0000004226 00000 n 0000002164 00000 n Thus, work, or energy, is required for refrigeration. The case studies, examples and tips used in this part should help clarify most of the issues a heat pump installer could encounter when dealing with consumers. Heat pumps therefore offer the advantage of energy conservation and lowered costs compared to other methods of heating. Heat pumps are installed in larger numbers only recently, while the underlying concept has been around for over 150 years. ��L`{��;P�e�x�"F��� �J�\�4x�<8�4�2��J�i0e`G���QN�L4��A�f'��b �S4�^1?���xA�"�͓�k�� �B>3^$�(߷@��s��\�= )+�Y�p�����-���������~� 0000029175 00000 n ��;طwL�U!k���� Heat Pump Lab Report.pdf. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy 4.9: The second law of thermodynamics will place limits on the above measures of performance. The transfer of heat from a low‐ Heat pumps are able to exploit heat from a colder place and bring and utilize it in warmer places. Heat and work Two primary classes of thermodynamic cycles are power cycles and heat pump cycles. He stated that the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics states: “You can’t pump steam! ��y{LU��%,8!��fp��AOS��2I٦f���S�|C%c��5=u�YLY��\#f�V��ު,�\.���'���0�ج�m�E(�-,��OR�ŧ�&G���[4�s�-��O��ɡ OӐ�2�M^-W�\AAwBðU�2������7��D.s�( PDF. There will be a quantity of heat rejected at the higher temperature and a quantity of heat absorbed at the lower temperature. HTR QIN LTR QOUT WIN Refrig. A heat pump is a device that pulls the energy out of air for the purpose of either heating or cooling a space. Heat pump installers should consult these parts for specific best practice advice. Briefly about heat pump thermodynamics and efficiencies The laws of thermodynamics form the base of the operation of a heat pump. In other words heat pump maintains a body or system at temperature higher than temperature of surroundings, while operating in cycle. In this study, thermodynamic performance of R431A and HCFC22 is measured in a heat pump bench tester under air-conditioning and heat pumping conditions. e��H�?h#i�f�kIe�=�f7�V��E�Q�I�%�6(*�8�O2�3��'Y�NY�~7!�m�:��\�����3I��hR�t%�Umd.i!U�&*S���]�ȷ�����������C�V�U��o��Fv�d�dV&i��'u�&3���ލݝ0 � �h��EgT�d�.P��y�]����))+�]�żVA�8Yj/O;��jt��l�ʡ9��ybZŶ�MM���� �f\7���u�@�MR2Aʛ4i��m+�+�h�}��k�1}�!6�98P�ۇ���zi;L��8Ȼ��DҢ�r�������.�i��{~? %%EOF ”, so until we condense all the steam into liquid water by extracting 17.6 MW of heat, we cannot pump it to the high pressure to complete the cycle. Heat pumps use renewable energy and may be the single most efficient technology for heating and cooling, particularly when both services are required in the same location and at the same time. 0000008152 00000 n LECTURE 9 HEAT ENGINES SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 2 … 0000007248 00000 n Heat pumps are able to exploit heat from a colder place and bring and utilize it in warmer places. 0000007033 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� 0 Thermodynamics Lab Report. INTRODUCTION T he time of cheap fossil fuels as the main drivers of civilization is nearing its end. The thermal efficiency of the heat engine and the coefficients of performance of the refrigerator and the heat pump are as defined in Sec. The units for entropy … … 0000127690 00000 n where Q 2 is heat absorbed from the sink, Q 1 is heat rejected to source and T 1 and T 2 are temperatures of source and sink. The points represent the different components of the heat pump. As the illustration shows, an electric heat pump can deliver more heat to a house than burning the primary fuel at 100% efficiency inside the house. An artifact of the second law of thermodynamics is the ability to heat an interior space using a heat pump. The second law, however, The contractual issues explored in Part 2 are described within the context of heat pumps. One is then interested in the figure of merit Q2 W = heat absorbed at low temperature work required . As for the refrigeration cycle, the energy balance reads Wcycle = Qout – Qin (Eq. 0000100157 00000 n �{8DQ��j;��FrM(���� :��w9��,қͪ�IGG����@�hkY�+�]�I�{ ���p�P"le0$���?K�T��|��ۧ���9�8#,��V$ó|�DgEc���ɰ��"����ꡙg}�t�����%��`;.��]��]���;�IuS����fNoq�� �â� 79�N���SMRJ�~�H�qN��i~��0`�V_!4�Oc��ۡ����>��o��n�UN�l���`J%��_���H�]�_Q�~�Į�� ��|Z��fwӂPuq������������{� E�=c\Q�ɪ����>V� ���Uu2����lҿ�}��R�#8���E ��/mK�Gb�3NGR�����gR0��hx>|�4� �$?���b Energy out of the engine Control, thermodynamics, Thermomechanical processes I process! 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